Toxicity of sediment-associated substituted phenylamine antioxidants and their effects during early life stages of the Fathead minnow
Substituted phenylamine antioxidants (SPAs) are used in the production of a variety of consumer products (lubricants, dyes, and polymers). Substituted phenylamine antioxidants (SPAs) increase the life of consumer products by preventing the chain reaction of free radical production initiated by exposure to heat, oxygen, ozone, radiation and stress.
It is important to consider that based on their physicochemical properties, substituted phenylamine antioxidants (SPAs) are likely to partition into sediment when they enter an aquatic system. Thus the most likely environmentally relevant pathway for fish to become exposed to SPAs would be through contaminated sediment. This data set investigated the effect of sub chronic exposure in the early life stages of the Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) to sediment spiked with substituted phenylamine antioxidants (SPAs). An advantage of testing during the early embryo-larval stages of a fish life is that they tend to be more sensitive to toxicants compared to more mature life stages of fish.
Four SPAs were tested in this dataset: Diphenylamine [DPA], N-phenyl-1-napthylamine [PNA], N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N’-phenyl-1,4 phenylenediamine [DPPDA], and 4,4’-methylene-bis[N-sec-butylaniline] [MBA].
Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) eggs and larvae were exposed to spiked sediment. Sediment used in this data set was collected from two reference sites (1) Long Point Marsh and (2) Long Point Bay located in Lake Erie, Ontario, Canada.
The dissipation of SPAs in sediment during equilibration and in overlaying water each day of the Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) test indicate that persistence of SPAs in the environment may be limited under similar conditions. From the perspective of concentration of SPAs in overlying water, total survival was the most sensitive endpoint for DPA, PNA, and DPPDA in respect to the early life stages of the Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) while growth and biomass production were the most sensitive endpoints for MBA.
Scientific Publication - Toxicity of sediment-associated substituted phenylamine antioxidants on the early life stages of Pimephales promelas and a characterization of effects on freshwater organisms.
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